Al-Fatiha | 7 verses | The Opening | سورة الفاتحة Sura #1 | Makkah
- Bismillāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm
- Al ḥamdu lillāhi rabbi l-'ālamīn
- Ar raḥmāni r-raḥīm
- Māliki yawmi d-dīn
- Iyyāka na'budu wa iyyāka nasta'īn
- Ihdinā ṣ-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm
- Ṣirāṭ al-laḏīna an'amta 'alayhim ġayril maġḍūbi 'alayhim walāḍ ḍāllīn
The first verse, transliterated as "Bismillāhir Rahmānir Rahīm", may be familiar to non-Arabic speakers and non-Muslims because of its ubiquity in Arabic and Muslim societies. This verse appears at the start of every chapter in the Qur'an with the exception of the ninth chapter. The verse is normally said before reciting a chapter or part of a chapter during daily prayer, and also before public proclamations and indeed before many personal and everyday activities in many Arabic and Muslim societies as a way to invoke God's blessing and proclaim one's motives before an undertaking.
The two words "ar Rahmān" and "ar Rahīm" are often translated in English as "the Beneficent" and "the Merciful" or "the Generous." They are often also translated as superlatives, for example, "the Most Generous" and "the Most Merciful". Grammatically the two words "Rahmaan" and "Raheem" are different linguistic forms of the triconsonantal root R-H-M, connoting "mercy". (For more information, see the section on root forms in Semitic languages). The form "Rahmaan" denotes degree or extent, i.e., "Most Merciful," while "Raheem" denotes time permanence, i.e., "Ever Merciful".
The second verse's "الحمد الله" ranks as one of the most popular phrases in all of Arabic, being used to express one's well-being, general happiness, or even consolation in a disaster (see Alhamdulillah). The verse is also significant in that it includes a relationship between the two most common names for God in Arabic "الله" and "رب". The first word is a ubiquitous name for God, and the second roughly translates to "Lord." It shares the same root with the Hebrew "Rabbi". In some printings of the Qur'an, both words appear in red everywhere in the Qur'an.
The first word of the fourth verse varies as between variant recitation versions of the Qur'an. The most widely preferred of those differ on whether it is "Maliki" with a short "a," which means "king" (Warsh, from Nafi'; Ibn Kathir; Ibn Amir; Abu 'Amr; Hamza), or rather "Māliki" with a long "a," meaning "master" or "owner" (Hafs, from Asim, and al-Kisa'i). "Maliki" and "Māliki" are distinct words of inconsistent precise meaning deriving from the same triconsonantal root in Arabic, M-L-K.
Islamic scholarly tradition is concerned, amongst other things, with when and where verses and chapters of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad - for example, whether a verse was revealed while Muhammad was in Mecca or Medina. According to Ibn Abbas and others, Sura Al-Fatiha is a Meccan sura; according to and others, it is a Medinan sura. The former view is more widely accepted, although some believe that it was revealed in both Mecca and Medina.
This sura contains 7 verses, 29 words and 139 letters (or 25 and 120, not counting the first verse), although Ibn Kathir says "The scholars say that Al-Fatiha consists of 25 words, and that it contains 113 letters." This is due to different methods of counting letters. Also, since the Qur'an came as an orally recited revelation rather than one written down, there were slightly different methods of spelling, similar to the differences between American English spelling and British English spelling (center vs. centre). AIt falls in the first hizb, and hence the first juz', which are sections of the Qur'an.
Translations, interpretations and commentaries
Because of a hadith which states that "whoever does not recite Surah Al-fatihah in his prayer his prayer is invalid", many Islamic scholars emphasise the importance of this chapter in their commentaries. In practice, this means that Muslims who perform daily prayers according to traditional rules will recite Surah Al-Fatiha at least 17 times a day 1:1 Beginning is with Allah's personal name Ar'Reh'maan Who is The Fountain of Infinite Mercy.
1:2 The Infinite Glory and Praise stands specified eternally, entirely and exclusively for Allah, the Exalted, the Sustainer Lord of the Known-Multiple universes-All that exists.
1:3-4 The Sustainer Lord of the Worlds is Ar'Reh'maan Who is The Fountain of Infinite Mercy. [1:3] Ar'Reh'maan is the Master/the Sovereign/the Authority/Holder of "The Day of Resurrection/Judgment and Requital".
1:5 [Our Sustainer Lord Ar'Reh'maan] You, the Exalted are the One and Only Whom we presently, and in future will, solely and exclusively owe and demonstrate allegiance and servitude. Moreover, You, the Exalted are exclusively the One we keep looking for cooperative and helping facilitation to exalt ourselves.
1:6-7 Our Sustainer Lord Ar'Reh'maan! You, the Exalted guide us upon the Path that keeps heading safely and straight to the destination of peace and tranquility; [1:6] the Path journeyed by those upon whom You showered blessings। This Path/Course is other than of those who made themselves liable to criminal cognizance/arrest, and nor is of those who are the neglectful wanderers.
Sura Al-Fatiha (Arabic: سورة الفاتحة), (Sūratul-Fātihah, "The Opener") is the first chapter of the Qur'an. Its seven verses are a prayer for Allah's guidance, and stress His Lordship and Mercy. This chapter has an essential role in Salaatu Allah, Namaaz, (prayer of God); Muslims recite the Surah Al-Fatiha seventeen times a day in Farz (Compulsory) Salaatu Allah, at the start of each unit of prayer।
Muslims believe in the Qur'an as a revelation given in Arabic from Allah। Translations into other languages are considered to be merely superficial "interpretations" of the meanings and not authentic versions, the word of God, of the Qur'an. In addition the term Bismillah Ir'Rahman Ir'Rahim is actually the first verse of Al-fatiha as often it would be a pre-saying to the surahs.